How do you make a permalink to a specific article?

If there's more than one version, you can use the URL from the "All versions" link.

http://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=17419077310816328027&hl=en&as_sdt=0,14
But if there's only one version, how to do you figure out what the cluser-ID is?

It turns out that the ID used int he "related articles" link:

http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=related:fkCDXCDyAwEJ:scholar.google.com/&hl=en&as_sdt=0,14
is actually the cluster ID. I don't know what encoding is used. But fortunately it doesn't matter — you can actually use the encoded form of the cluster ID in the first URL:
http://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=fkCDXCDyAwEJ&hl=en&as_sdt=0,14