The final chapter of "The New Jim Crow" raises the issue of present and future approaches to dealing with the mass incarceration crisis. Alexander believes that pushing reforms through a broad-based social coalition, as has been done in the past, while possibly helpful, will not be enough, because "a new system of racialized social control" will eventually appear, assuming forms impossible to predict now. If a movement emerges to confront mass incarceration, Alexander believes it will need to address the underlying causes and ills of society at large, and needs to "cultivate an ethic of genuine care" for every individual, regardless of ethnic background, gender, class, or other considerations.