The US has fourteen territories, with five that are permanently-occupied: [map]
Residents of Puerto Rico are US citizens.
Puerto Ricans don't pay federal income taxes, however they do pay federal customs taxes, federal commodity taxes, and federal payroll taxes (Social Security, Medicare, and Unemployment taxes).
Puerto Rico has a single non-voting representative in the House of Representatives.
Puerto Rico residents have no electoral votes in presidential elections, and can not vote in other federal elections.
Guam has one non-voting representative in the House of Representatives.
Residents of Guam are US citizens.
US Virgin Island residents pay (TODO) taxes.
Residents of the US Virgin islands are US citizens.
US Virgin Island has one non-voting representative in the House of Representatives.
Northern Mariana Islands residents are US citizens.
American Samoa is the only major US territory that does not confer US citizenship upon birth. American Samoans are considered "US non-citizen nationals" , and their passports carry the disclaimer "The bearer is a United States national and not a United States citizen". (though do note that some American Samoans specifically want to avoid obtaining US citizenship)
Even if American Samoans move to the 50 states, they're still prohibited from voting, serving on juries, or running for state or federal office.
Phrases marked in red indicate things that I feel require reform. Specific issues I have: