Some terms that are sometimes used for various related conditions:
hyperacusis (absolutely, 100% yes) — increased sensitivity to sound and a low tolerance for environmental noise
Shopping is difficult for me because of the environmental noise. Being in an open-plan / cubeless office is extremely difficult for me.
sensory processing disorder (almost certainly) — "characterized as the source of significant problems in organizing sensation coming from the body and the environment and is manifested by difficulties in the performance in one or more of the main areas of life: productivity, leisure and play or activities of daily living"
recruitment (very mild) — when your ears have trouble adjusting between quiet and loud sounds
phonophobia (no) — "a fear of or aversion to loud sounds (for example fireworks)"
I do dislike loud sounds, but it's not an increased startle response or anything like that. My dislike of louder sounds is linear — my negative feelings slowly increase at the same rate as the volume increases.
misphonia (no) — "decreased tolerance to specific sounds ... sometimes called selective sound sensitivity syndrome"
I'm uniformly sensitive to all sounds based only on sound volume, not based on particular sounds.
Specific symptoms that appear when I get severely overstimulated: